Uro-Oncology offers compassionate care for those diagnosed with kidney cancer, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, penile and testicular cancer. Treatment options offered include medical, surgical and management of tumor through chemo and radiation therapy.

When kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grows out of control, they result in formation of a tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. The good news is that most of these cancers are found before they spread (metastasise) to distant organs. If these cancers are detected early, it is easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detected.

Stages of Kidney Cancers

  • Stage I: A tumor 7 centimeters or smaller that is only in the kidney.
  • Stage II: A tumor larger than 7 centimeters that is only in the kidney.
  • Stage III:A tumor that is in the kidney and in one nearby lymph node.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread beyond the fatty layer of tissue around the kidney, and it may also be in one nearby lymph node

Treatments for Kidney Cancer

Following are the main types of surgery for kidney cancer depending upon how much the cancer is grown in side the kidney

  • Open Radical Nephrectomy: Kidney cancer may be treated with radical nephrectomy, in which the entire kidney, along with the adrenal gland and some tissue around the kidney, is surgically removed
  • Open Partial Nephrectomy: is defined as a removal of a portion of the kidney to achieve total removal of the entire tumor. A good margin of normal renal tissue is kept around the tumor to minimize the risk of recurrence.
  • Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy: Here, the entire kidney is removed laparoscopically giving advantage of minimal invasive surgery to the patient.
  • Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy: This is suitable for peripherally located tumor less than 4 cm in size.

Common presentation of Renal Cancer

  • Hematuria
  • Flank pain
  • Lump in flank
  • Incidental (detected on evaluation done for routine heath check up)
  • When malignant (cancerous) cell grow in urinary bladder endothelium (inner layer) and grows out of control, they result in formation of a tumor. This type of cancer is called transitional cell carcinoma. These cancers usually grow rapidly, so early intervention is needed to prevent spread locally or in distant organ.

    Bladder cancer is a cancer that starts in the bladder. The bladder is the body part that holds and releases urine. It is in the center of the lower belly area.

    Types of Bladder Cancer

    • Urothelial carcinoma previously called transitional cell carcinoma, occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder.
    • Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic irritation of the bladder, for instance from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter.
    • Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make up mucus-secreting glands in the bladder.

    Treatments for Bladder Cancer

    These are the main types of surgery for kidney cancer. Which type you have depends on how advanced your cancer is.

    • TURBT (Endoscopic bladder tumor resection)Most commonly done surgery for bladder tumor. Here, endoscopicaly, tumor is resected and removed. It offers complete cure in small superficial tumors (tumor involving only inner most layer of urinary bladder.
    • Radical cystectomy: when tumor is involved in deep muscular layer of urinary bladder total removal of urinary bladder is important to prevent further spread and recurrence. The urinary continuity is maintained by either neobladder or ileal conduit creation using small bowel.

    The prostate is a gland of the male reproductive system. It is located in front of the rectum and just below the urinary bladder. Its main function is to produce fluid for semen, which transports sperm.Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour that begins most often in the outer part of the prostate. It may spread to the inner part of the prostate, and beyond the prostate, to other parts of the body. Prostate cancer is the seventh most common cancer in men.
    Most men who get prostate cancer are 50 years of age or older, and the risk increases with age. It is usually curable when detected early, but can kill if diagnosed late or not treated effectively.

    Treatments of Prostate Cancer

    • Hormone therapy (medicines to reduce testosterone levels)
    • Surgery (radical prostatectomy)
    • Radiation therapy, including brachytherapy and proton therapy

    Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Radical prostatectomy, or open surgery, is the most commonly performed surgical procedure for treatment of localized prostate cancer. A less invasive option, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has its basis in traditional open surgery, with less blood loss and better cosmetic results. Laparoscopic instruments improve visualization, enabling precise dissection of the prostate and neurovascular structures. Additionally, laparoscopic suturing techniques allow for a meticulous connection of bladder to urethra following removal of the prostate. This offers the potential for less scarring of the urethra following surgery.

    Advantages over open surgery

    • Significantly less blood loss
    • Better cosmetic result
    • Quicker return to normal activity
    • Improved visualization of surgical field

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