A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine. Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds). About 80% of those with kidney stones are men. Men most commonly experience their first episode between 30 and 40 years of age, while for women the age at first presentation is somewhat later.

Signs and symptoms

Dietary factors that increase the risk of stone formation include low fluid intake and high dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup, oxalate, grapefruit juice, apple juice, and cola drinks.

Investigation for kidney stones

Uro- Oncology offers compassionate care for those diagnosed with prostate cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. Treatment options offered include medical, surgical and management of tumour through chemo and radiation therapy.

Types of Urology Cancer

Signs and Symptoms of Urology Cancer

  • Blood in your urine
  • A lump in your side or abdomen
  • A loss of appetite
  • A pain in your side that does not go away
  • Weight loss that occurs for no known reason
  • Fever that lasts for weeks and isnt caused by a cold or other infection
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Swelling in your ankles or legs

Urologic conditions affect both men and women, but women may experience disorders differently. Some urologic conditions, such as urinary incontinence (UI) and urinary tract infections (UTIs), are more common in women.

Urinary tract and kidney problems are common in women in part because the urinary tract is much closer to their genital area than in men. As such, pregnancy, childbirth and sexual intercourse can also play a part in urologic conditions affecting women.

General Urinary Conditions & Treatments in Women

  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs): UTIs are caused by bacterial infections in the urinary tract causing painful or frequent urination, blood in the urine, cramps or nausea. One woman in five develops a UTI during her lifetime and women are 10 times more likely to have a UTI than men.
  • Urinary Incontinence: Women experience urinary incontinence (UI), the involuntary loss of bladder control, about twice as often as men. This is due to the structure of the female urinary tract and because women experience childbirth and menopause
  • Urinary fistula: A fistula is an uncommon connection among any organ or intestine and can occur anywhere in the body. Urinary fistulas include any abnormal connection between the kidney, bladder, urethra, the colon and the vagina. The result can be feces and urine leaking from the vagina due to that abnormal connection.
  • Pelvic organ Prolapse: Pelvic organ prolapse occurs when a woman’s muscles, skin, ligaments and other support structures surrounding the vagina weaken, causing pelvic organs such as the bladder to fall out of their normal position. There are different types of prolapse, named after the organs that are shifting within a women’s pelvic area. Types of prolapse include vaginal prolapse or bladder prolapse.
  • Voiding dysfunction: The lower urinary tract, which includes the bladder and urethra, allows for storage and discharge of urine. Voiding dysfunction is a general term describing poor coordination between the bladder muscle and the urethra, in which the bladder does not empty properly. Symptoms typically include a strong urge to urinate, frequent urination and the inability to empty the bladder.

Pediatric urology conditions include a wide range of conditions involving the genital and urinary tracts. Often these are congenital (present at birth) and diagnosed as early as prenatally or in infancy; in many cases, they are treated and resolved early in life, sometimes through surgical reconstruction. Other times, the conditions are acquired during childhood.

The most common condition seen by pediatric urologists is a urinary tract infection, which occurs more frequently in girls than in boys. An estimated 1-2 percent of children develop a UTI, characterized by blood in the urine, an unusual odor to the urine, or a change in urinary patterns.

General Urinary Conditions & Treatments in Pediatric

  • Antenatal hydronephrosis – a fluid-filled enlargement of the kidney prior to birth, typically diagnosed with prenatal ultrasound
  • Hernia – a protrusion of all or part of an organ or tissue through a weakened area
  • Hydronephrosis – swelling of the kidneys caused by obstruction in the urinary tract
  • Hypospadias – a congenital condition, usually diagnosed during infancy, in which the opening of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the body) is on the underside of the penis rather than at the tip
  • Neurogenic bladder – a disorder resulting from interference in the normal nerve pathways that send signals to the bladder regarding urination
  • Nocturnal Enuresis – bedwetting beyond the age at which a child would be expected to remain dry – believed to be caused by a developmental delay in the bladder and usually something the child outgrows
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux – a condition in which urine from the bladder backs up into the ureter, often diagnosed during prenatal ultrasound or after a urinary tract infection
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction – blockage of the flow of urine in the area where the ureter meets the kidney

Male Infertility is when the sex glands produce little or no hormones. In men, these glands (gonads) are the testes; in women, they are the ovaries. It is a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty or has an impaired ability to produce sperm or both.

Causes of Male Infertility

  • Certain autoimmune disorders
  • Genetic and developmental disorders
  • Infection
  • Liver and kidney disease
  • Radiation
  • Surgery
  • Bleeding
  • Certain medications, including steroids and opiates
  • Genetic problems
  • Infections
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Iron excess (hemochromatosis)
  • Rapid, significant weight loss
  • Trauma
  • Tumors

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for his or his partners sexual needs. Most men experience this at some point in their lives, usually by the age of 40, and are not psychologically affected by it.

Causes of Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction is characterized by the regular or repeated inability to obtain or maintain an erection. There are several ways that erectile dysfunction is analyzed:

  • Obtaining full erections at some times, such as when asleep (when the mind and psychological issues, if any, are less present), tends to suggest the physical structures are functionally working.
  • Other factors leading to erectile dysfunction are diabetes mellitus (causing neuropathy).
  • Drugs: Anti-depressants (SSRIs) and nicotine are most common
  • Neurogenic disorders: Spinal cord and brain injuries, nerve disorders such as Parkinson�s disease, Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke
  • Cavernosal disorders: Peyronies disease
  • Psychological causes: Performance anxiety, stress, mental disorders, clinical depression, schizophrenia, substance abuse, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, personality disorders or traits psychological problems, negative feelings.
  • Surgery: Radiation therapy, surgery of the colon, prostate, bladder, or rectum may damage the nerves and blood vessels involved in erection. Prostate and bladder cancer surgery often require removing tissue and nerves surrounding a tumor, which increases the risk for impotence
  • Ageing: It is four times higher in men in their 60s than in men in their 40s.
  • Kidney failure: Diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS). While these two causes have not been proven they�re likely suspects as they cause issues with both the blood flow and nervous systems.
  • Lifestyle: Smoking is a key cause of erectile dysfunction. Smoking causes impotence because it promotes arterial narrowing.

Prostatitis is a condition that involves inflammation of the prostate and sometimes the area around it. There are several types of prostatitis, each with a range of symptoms. Some men with the disease will experience severe pain and others will not be bothered; and the rest fall in between the two. However, the symptoms of the disease do have a significant impact on a man quality of life.

Types of prostatitis and their causes

  • Acute bacterial prostatitis. Often caused by common strains of bacteria, this type of prostatitis generally starts suddenly and causes flu-like signs and symptoms, such as fever, chills, nausea and vomiting.
  • Chronic bacterial prostatitis. When antibiotics don't eliminate the bacteria causing prostatitis, you can develop recurring or difficult-to-treat infections. Between bouts of chronic bacterial prostatitis, you might have no symptoms or only minor ones.
  • Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. This type of prostatitis the most common is not caused by bacteria. Often an exact cause cant be identified. For some men, symptoms stay about the same over time. For others, the symptoms go through cycles of being more and less severe.
  • Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. This type of prostatitis doesn't cause symptoms and is usually found only by chance when you're undergoing tests for other conditions. It doesn't require treatment.

Signs and symptoms of Prostatitis

  • Pain or burning sensation when urinating (dysuria)
  • Difficulty urinating, such as dribbling or hesitant urination
  • Frequent urination, particularly at night (nocturia)
  • Urgent need to urinate
  • Cloudy urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pain in the abdomen, groin or lower back
  • Pain in the area between the scrotum and rectum (perineum)
  • Pain or discomfort of the penis or testicles
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Flu-like signs and symptoms (with bacterial prostatitis)

Diagnosis of Prostatitis

  • Urine tests
  • Blood tests.
  • Post-prostatic massage.
  • Imaging tests

Nocturia (Excessive Urination at Night) is a medical term for excessive urination especially at night and during sleep. This is a medical condition and a symptom of any of the different types of urinary disorder. This is a secondary bedwetting syndrome marked by involuntary loss of urine and is common in the elderly.Bedwetting is prevalent in children from age 0 to about 4 years old. A childs bladder reaches maturity by the time the toddler is potty trained, usually at age 5. Although every childs bladder matures at different age, children generally stop bedwetting by the time they reach 6 years old. When a child suddenly starts bedwetting again after a long period of being dry then parents should start to worry.

Causes of Nocturia

A variety of medical conditions can cause nocturia. Common causes of nocturia are a urinary tract infection (UTI) or bladder infection. These infections cause frequent burning sensations and urgent urination throughout the day and night.

  • Infection or enlargement of the prostate
  • Tumors of the bladder, prostate, or pelvic area
  • Diabetes
  • Kidney infection
  • Edema or Swelling of the lower legs
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson�s disease, or spinal cord compression

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